1)   Authentication:-Intruders can potentially gainaccess to sensitive data or network equipment and services. Access controllimits who or what can use specific resources as well as the services oroptions available once access is granted.

The simplest form ofauthentication is passwords. This method is easiest to implement, but it alsothe weakest and lest secure. Password-only logins are very vulnerable to bruteforce attacks. Additionally, this method provides no accountability. Anyonewith the password can gain entry to the device and alter the configuration.

There are many types ofauthentication methods which are better than passwords.·        Certificate-BasedAuthentication: -This type uses an x.509 certificate forpublic/private key technology. ·        Token-BasedAuthentication: – A token, such as SecurID, is a hardware devicethat displays an authentication code for 60 seconds; a user uses this code tolog into a network. ·        BiometricAuthentication: – This type uses a physical characteristic suchas fingerprint, eye iris, or handprint to authenticate the user.2)   Authorization:- the selected After users are successfullyauthenticated against the selected data source, they are than authorized forspecific data or database or network resources.

Authorization is basically whata user can and cannot do on the network after that user is authenticated.Authorization is typicallyimplemented using a AAA server-based solution. Authorization uses a created setof attributes that describes the user’s access to the specific data or database.These attributes are compared to information contained within the AAA database,and determination of restrictions for that user is made and delivered to thelocal router where the user is connected.3)   Encryption:-Encryption can be used toencrypt data while it is in transit or while it’s stored on a hard drive.Cryptography is the study of protecting information by mathematicallyscrambling the data, so it cannot be deciphered without knowledge of themathematical formula used to encrypt it. This mathematical formula is known asthe encryption algorithm.

Cryptography is composed of two words: crypt (meaningsecret or hidden) and graphy (meaning writing). Cryptography literally meanssecret or hidden writing. Cleartext is the plan text which can be read byeveryone and understandable data, and cipher text is the scrambled text as aresult of the encryption process. Cipher text should be unreadable and show norepeatable pattern to ensure the confidentiality of the data.There are three criticalelements to data security. Confidentiality, integrity, and authentication areknown as the CIA triad. Data encryption provides confidentiality, meaning thedata can only be read by authorized users. Message hashing provides integrity,which ensures the data sent is the same data received and the information wasnot modified in transit.

Message digital signatures provide authentication(ensuring users are who they say they are) as well as integrity. Message encrypting,and digital signatures together provide confidentiality, authentication, andintegrity.


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