VIEW OF RENAL DISEASE
Ahmed AL Assal
El Camino College
Patient Sara which is a 63 year female has past medical history that has effects on her newly diagnose End Stage Kidney Disease. Patient has a history of diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis of the liver, gout, pericarditis and last ESKD. Sara is presented with multiple signs and symptoms coming from lab blood test, urinalysis and physical findings which are weakness, bruises, gray color stool, edema, yellow discoloration of the skin and sclera. Due to her Kidneys and liver not functioning properly patient has a lot deficiencies and problem excreting out of the urine. Pt has liver disease which is also causing a lot of problems with jaundice.
Liver, Pancreas and Kidney Function
In this case explains of the functions of some of important organs the Liver, Pancreas and Kidneys. The liver, pancreas and kidney work together to process food and absorb and digest.. In the digestive tract the livers main function is to filter the blood the Deliver’s to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. The liver also has the functions like detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. The lives secrete bile that will find its way to the intestines.. The liver additional makes proteins essential for blood clotting and other functions. While the liver main job is to filter, the role of the pancreas converts the food we eat into energy. The pancreas main function is the exocrine function that helps digestion and regulate sugar. The last organ is the Kidneys and its function in the human body. The kidneys are important in maintaining the overall fluid balance; regulating and filtering minerals from the blood, filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances. The kidneys also create hormones that help produce red blood cells and promote bone health and regulated blood pressure.
Healthy Kidneys turn turns Vitamin D into an active hormone called calcitriol, which helps the increase calcium absorption from the intestines into the blood. Patient presented with an abnormal calcium labs in this case 7.1 is a result of the Kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes an imbalances in calcium which is a factor of her having heart problems. Calcium depositing in the blood vessels is also the result of heart disease. Supplements from the doctor can help replace the calcium that is usually made with healthy kidneys can be replaced. Patient is also presented with Low sodium levels which is called hyponatremia. Hyponatremia occurs when the body contains too little sodium for the amount of fluid it contains (Lewis, 2012). Disorders, such as kidney disease and cirrhosis, can cause the body to retain sodium and fluid which can contribute to the development of hyponatremia.
Why patient may present with Anemia
Anemia is most common with chronic kidney disease, the permanent, partial loss of kidney function. In the beginning of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) a person may lose 20 to 50 percent of the normal kidney function and tends to worsen as CKD progress (Cadogan, 2014). Most people have total loss of kidney function or kidney failure have anemia.. Anemia is cause in CKD when the kidneys are disease or damage and do not make enough erythropoietin (EPO) which is erythropoietin and Kidney hormone produced by the kidney (Gallant, 2016). After EPO is released into the blood stream it binds with receptors in the bone marrow where it stimulates the production of red blood cells which causes anemia. The patient blood cell count is 3.9/cells/ul and normal values are 4.7/cells/ul-6.1/cell/ul (Weatherspoon, 2017).
A life threatening organ dysfunction called sepsis can be caused by Acura failure in the following organ kidneys, liver and lungs; signs include hypotension and confusion (Weatherspoon, 2014). Uremic patients, heart rates may be deceptively slow with tamponade, fever, and hypotension due to autonomic impairment (Weatherspoon, 2017). Hypotension has to be monitored in a patient with end stage renal disease because the body can undergo shock quickly. The kidneys help maintain homeostasis by regulating the concentration and volume of body fluids. The patient may need have dialysis to maintain homeostasis (Weatherspoon, 2017).
Development of Acid base Disorder
As the kidneys play a central role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolytes and acid-base balance, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) predictably result in multiple derangements including hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis and hyperphosphatemia which, in turn, lead to serious complications including muscle wasting, bone-mineral disorder, vascular calcification and mortality. Patient may be undergoing metabolic acidosis. Ph.