## WGU Integrated Natural Science

Most natural phenomena we wonder about involve several scientific disciplines.
Wheras Aristotle relied on logic in explaining nature, Galileo relied on experiments.
Science, art, and religion do not contradict each other because all three have different domains.

If experimental findings are not reproducible, the results are not considered valid.
In science, an educated guess is a hypothesis.
If a free falling object were equipped with a speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by about 10 m/s.

Using science to analyze nature adds depth to our understanding and therfore adds to our appreciation of nature.
Science and technology are related to each other, but not the same thing.
A kilogram is a measure of an object's mass.

The statement, "There are regions below the Earth's crust that will always be beyond the reach of scientific investigation," is a speculation.
The synthesis of a large collection of information that contains well tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the world is known as scientific theory.
1 1-kg mass at the Earth's surface weighs 10N.
What is the acceleration of a car that maintains a constant velocity of 100 km/h for 10 s? 0 m/s2
The scientific method is a method for gaining new knowledge.
When distance between two charges is halved, the electrical force between the charges quadrouples.
A proton and an electron are placed in an electrical field. Which undergoes the greatest acceleration? electron
Electrons are made to flow in a wire when there is a potential difference across its end.

Moving electric charges interact with a magnetic and an electrical field.
Thrust a magnetic coil into a coil of wire and the coil becomes an electromagnet and has a current in it.
If you do work on an object in half the time, your power output is twice the usual power output.

An object that has kinetic energy must be moving.
Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30 km/h or a car of half that mass traveling at 60 km/h? The 60 km/h car.
When the distance between two stars decreases by half, the force between them increases to four times as much.
Which force binds atoms together to form molecules? electrical
To say that electrical charge has been conserved means that no case has ever been found where net charge has been created or destroyed.
As more lamps are put into a series circuit, the overall current in the power source decreases.
The headlights, radio, and defroster fan in an automobile are connected in parallel.

If you push an object twice as far while applying the same force, you do twice as much work.
An ampere is a unit of electrical current.
The force on an electron moving in a magnetic field will be largest when its direction is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction.
An object is raised above the ground gaining a certain amount of potential energy. If the same object is raised twice as high, it gains twice as much potential energy.
According to Newton, the greater the masses of interacting objects, the greater the gravitational force between them.

Magnetic domains normally occur in iron.
The solar system consists of objects gravitationally bound to the Sun.
Consider a huge rotating cloud of particles in space that gravitate together to form an increasingly dense ball. As the cloud shrinks in size it rotates faster.
A main difference between gravitational and electrical forces is that electrical forces repel or attract.
The source of all magnetism is moving electric charge.
The electrical forces between charges depends on the seperation distance and magnitude of electric charges.
A flower pot of mass "m" falls from rest to the ground below, a distance "h".

The KE of the pot when it hits the ground

is proportional to "h".
Current flows through a circuit.
If you exert 1 N for a distance of 1 m in 1 s, you will deliver a power of 1 W.
Voltage can be induced in a wire by changing the current in a nearby wire, moving a magnet near the wire, or moving the wire near a magnet.
The direction of a gravitational field is in the same direction of gravitational attraction.
Charge carriers in a metal are electrons rather than protons because electrons are loosely bound.
Thermal energy is a measure of vibrational and rotational and translational kinetic energy.

Wave interference occurs for sound, light, and water waves.
Sound travels fastest through steel.
Refraction of sound can occur in air and water.
Relative to ultraviolet waves, the wavelength of infrared waves is longer.
The Mercalli scale measures the damage done by the earthquake.
The movement of water in a wave travels in a circular path and just below the surface.

The vibrations of a longitudinal wave move in a direction along the direction of the wave.
For light, a red shift indicates the light source moves away from you.
A sound source of high frequency emits a high pitch.
Sound waves cannot travel in a vacuum.
A sound wave is a longitudinal wave.

The main difference between a radio wave and a light wave is its frequency and
Light behaves as a particle when it interacts with matter.
Earthquake P-waves are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves.
In designing a music hall, an acoustical engineer deals mainly with wave interference.
The source of all electromagnetic waves is vibrating charges.
The vibrations of a transverse wave move in a direction at right angles to the direction of wave travel.
Tsunami are caused usually by earthquakes in subduction zones.
The source of all wave motion is a vibrating object.
The Richter scale measures the earthquake's magnitude.

Electromagnetic waves consist of vibrating electric and magnetic fields.
The fastest seismic wave is a primary wave.
In a swell, wavelength is constant. As a swell nears the shore and touches bottom, the wavelength shortens, the wave speed slows, and the wave height increases.

The Richter scale measures the amount the ground shakes during the Earthquake.
Which electromagnetic wave has the shortest wavelength? X-rays
The photoelectric effect best demonstrates the particle nature of light.
Compressions and rarefractions are characteristic of longitudinal waves.

In both fission and fusion, mass is changed to the form of kinetic energy.
Compared to the density of water, the density of Saturn is less.
Asteroids that are most likely to fall to Earth with devastating impact are asteroids of the inner solar system.
Thermonuclear fusion occurs mainly in the cores of stars.
After our Sun burns its supply of hydrogen, it will become a red giant.
The Hertsprung-Russel Diagram, an important tool to astronomers, relates stellar temperatures to stellar brightness.
Stars on the main sequence of the Hertsprung-Russel diagram generate energy by fusing hydrogen to helium.

Red giants are stars that are large but have low surface temperatures.
White dwarfs are stars that are small but have high surface temperatures.
An atom with an imbalance of electrons to protons is an ion.
The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of its protons.

Different isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons.
Compared to the mass of a uranium nucleus before splitting, the pieces it splits into have less mass.
Between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, radioactive by-products are more characteristic of nuclear fission.
Why are the inner planets rocky? They are formed from materials with high melting points.
Which planet is most tipped on its orbital plane? Uranus.

A nucleon has more potential energy with respect to its nucleus when it is outside the nucleus.
Which planet has a size similar to Earth? Venus
the end result of radioactive decay can be a different isotope, atom, or element.
Evidence of the Big Bang is the long wavelength radiation that permeates the universe and slowing down of the galaxies as they recede.

A pulsar is likely a spinning neutron star
The predominant gas in the atmosphere of Mars is carbon dioxide
The temperature of a star is evidenced by its color.
What is a black hole? The remains of a giant collapsed star.
Energy released from the Sun results from the process wherin atomic nuclei combine
The larger the nucleus, the greater its instability.
Carbon dating requires that the object being tested contains organic material.
Electric forces within an atomic nucleus tend to push it apart.
A blue star is __________ than a red star.

hotter
The Nebular theory is based upon the observation that the solar system is highly ordered, indicating it formed in a step-wise manner from physical processes.
Radiometric dating is based on proportions of radioactive isotopes and their decay products.
The atomic mass number of an element is the same as the number of its nucleons.

The Oort cloud is like the Kuiper Belt in that has the same geometric shape.
The neon atoms tend NOT to gain any additonal electrons because there is no room available in tis outermost occupied shell.
What type of chemical bond would you expect between two chlorine atoms? nonpolar covalent
Earth's magnetic field is attributed to the flow of molten fluid in the Earth's outer core.
A mineral that is not a silicate is calcite.
Minerals that have strong bonds between flat cyrstal surfaces tend to show poor cleavage.
Limestone may be made up of shell fragments from marine animals.

The layered appearance of foliated metamorphic rock is due to the realignment of minerals so that they are perpendicular to compressive forces.
Rocks altered by heat and pressure beneath the Earth's surface are metamorphic rocks.
What makes an element distinct? the number of protons.
In an electrically neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is balanced by an equal number of electrons.

If one neutron is added to a helium nucleus, the result is helium
If two protons are added to an oxygen nucleus, the result is Neon
Where are metals found on the periodic table? on the left and central portion.
When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas releases energy.
What elements tend to form ionic compounds? elements found on opposite sides of the periodic table.
What chemical bond would you have between calcium and chlorine? Ionic
Both nitrogen and phosphorus are able to attract three more electrons to their outer shells because these electrons are able to pair with unpaired valence electrons, have three spaces available and the nuclear charge attracts them.
Earth's layer with the most plastic like behavior is the mantle.
Is the air in your house homogeneous or heterogeneous? heterogenous because of the dust particles it contains.
Some _________ rocks were made from minerals dissolved in water.

sedimentary
What is the difference between a compound and a mixture? The components of a mixture are not chemically bonded together.
Continental crust is very bouyant compared with oceanic crust because continental crust is predominantly composed of granitic rock, wheras oceanic crust is composed of basaltic rock.
One DNA strand has a sequence of CAGTC. The opposite strand has a sequence of GTCAG
If DNA is described as resembling a ladder in structure, the "sides" of the ladder consist of ________ and the "rungs" consist of _____________. sugar; phosphate
The lithosphere includes part of the mantle and the crust, continental and oceanic crust.
The outer electrons of metal atoms differ from the outer electrons of nonmetal atoms in that the outer electrons of metal atoms reflect many frequencies of light, can conduct electricity, and are loosely held.

The Mohorovicic discountinuity marks the change in rock density between the mantle and the crustal surface.
The upper mantle can be divided into two zones, the asthenosphere in the lower upper mantle and lithosphere in the upper part of the upper mantle.
The mantle is composed of iron-rich silicate rocks.
Oxygen atoms are used to make water molecules. Does that mean that oxygen, O2, water, and H20 have similar properties? No, compounds are uniquely different from the elements from which they are made.
How would you differientiate a sodium vapor street lamp and a mercury vapor street lamp? Look at the street lamps through a spectroscope and match their spectral patterns to their respective atomic spectra.
Erosion is transportation of rock particles via wind, water, or ice.
The Earth's core is made up of iron and nickel.
The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the silicate tetrahedron.
Covalent and ionic bonds differ in that ionic bonds don't involve the sharing of electrons.
Most mountains are caused by compressive forces
The principle cause of erosion and transportation of sediment in the desert is wind.
A rock that is readily attacked by chemical weathering is limestone
The typical mountain valley that has been subjected to glaciation is shaped like the letter "U"
A moraine is a glacier deposit.
The glass on a greenhouse allows ultraviolet light to enter, and traps the longer waves.
The trophosphere is the lowest layer and thickest, where weather occurs.
Alfred Wegener supported his theory of continental drift by making connections between rocks, rock structures, and plant and animal fossils found in both Africa and South America.
The theory of seafloor spreading is supported by paleomagnetic analysis of the ocean floor.
The theory of plate tectonics states the lithosphere is broken up into several plates that move about as a result of convective motion in the athenosphere.
Fault block mountains are produced by tensional forces and movement of sections of rock along fault planes.
Divergent boundaries are areas of tensional forces that stretch the crust and generate a spreading center.
Convergent boundaries are regions of plate collision, mountain building, and subduction zones.
The layers of the Earth's atmosphere are trophosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
Land subsidence is not reversible because the compacted clay layers cannot be expanded.
A drop in barometric pressure indicates a stationary front.
Mountains tend to form in long narrow ranges because mountains are the result of plate convergence – plates coming together.
According to the theory of seafloor spreading, molten rock is rising up along subsiding divergent margins.
Transform faults are areas of crustal accomodation and plate movement.
What percent of energy at one trophic level becomes available at the next level? 10%
Permanently frozen subsoil characterizes tundra
Biodiversity is believed to be the greatest when a habitat experiences regular disturbances that are not too extreme.
Fertile soils are found in deserts and temperate grasslands.
Wind is generated in response to temperature differences, pressure differences, and the unequal heating of the earth's surface.
Which trophic level do plant eating antelope belong to? primary consumers
Which trophic level do meat-eating lions belong to? secondary consumers
Carbon moves from the abiotic world to the biotic world when plants build glucose during photosynthesis.
The biotic and abiotic resources a species uses is called its niche.
When an Egyptiona plover cleans the teeth of a crocodile, we see an example of mutualism.
The primary driving force of the Earth's weather is solar radiation.
The reactants in the overal chemical equation of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
Fungi that consume dead organic matter are decomposers.
Oceanice phytoplankton are found in the photic zone.
A dense canopy of trees, little leaf litter, and poor soil characterizes tropical forests.
Almost all the Earth's supply of energy comes from the Sun.
The relationship between a leech and the animal it feeds off of is an example of symbiosis and parasitism.
All the organisms that live in a given area, plus the abiotic features that make up their environment, make up an ecosystem.
The three domains of life are bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
Bacteria can possess any of the following traits except mitochondria.
An example of artifical selection is breeding of corn from tesonite.
A swim bladder is found in ray-finned fish.
True or False: Fungi include both unicellular and multicellular forms. True.
Under the cladistic classification system, organisms are grouped together based on their evolutionary history.
An example of an autotrophic protist is kelp.
The scientific name of a species is always Latinized and consists of the genus name and the species name.
Archaea cannot be an eukaryote.
Natural selection may favor traits that help organisms acquire mates, survive, and successfully raise offpsring.
Animals that have only a single body opening that serves as both the mouth and anus are cnidarians and flatworms.
Humans are heterotrophs.
Blood flowing back to the heart travels in veins.
The organelles that conduct photosynthesis in plant cells are chloroplasts.
Blood in the left ventricle of the heart will be pumped to arteries going to body tissues.
During which process is most ATP generated? electron transport
Which stage of the cell cycle does the cell divide? mitosis
A mutation in which one nucleotide is subsituted for another is called point mutation.
From which blood vessels are materials exchanged between blood and body tissues? capillaries.
Carbo dioxide moves from the bloodstream to the alveoli through the process of diffusion.
Urine flows from the bladder out of the body through the urethra.
During the inflammatory response, damaged tissues release histamines and fluid leaks from capillaries causing swelling.
A ph of 7 signifies A neutral soultion.
During glycolysis, sugar is split and ATP is generated.
A prokaryotic cell could potentially have a cell wall.
Water moves in and out of cells through diffusion.
Nucleic acids store genetic information in living organisms.
A sodium-potassium pump provides an example of active transport.
Codons that signal that there are no amino acids in a protein are stop codons.
What form of transport across the cell membrane does not require energy, but does require a carrier protein? facilitated diffusion.
From the glomerulus, the filtrate moves into the Bowman's capsule.
What occurs in the loop of Henle? Water reabsorption.
What would produce a frameshift mutation? The insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide in a gene-coding sequence.
The heart is an example of an organ.
Energy is required to break apart a chemical bond to overcome electrical forces of attraction.
If an organism's diploid cells have 40 chromosomes, then its haploid cells have 20 chromosomes.
The cells that allow the immune system to respond more quickly to an antigen when it is encountered again later in life are called memory cells.
The difference between an exothermic and endothermic reaction is that an exothermic reaction has energy as a product and an endothermic reaction has energy as a reactant.
One difference in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that prokaryotic cells have existed on the Earth for far longer than eukaryotic cells.
A highly acidic mix of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes is added to food in the stomach.
Neorons that carry messages from the central nervous system to muscle cells or to other responsive organs are called motor neurons.
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