In the past thirty years thousands have migrated from North East Brazil to major cities in the South East. In 1950 there were just four million people living in the South East. In 1995 (four years later) there was sixteen million people living there. The area has many problems
And these are the main reasons people are moving out.
One of the main reasons people are leaving is drought. South-East Brazil is a desert look-a-like, with very little or no rain. The rain is unreliable and there can be long periods of rain and then not a drop for months. Therefore it is useless and very hard to use the land for anything. Many farmers have to scratch a living from producing sugar can. Most farmers don’t own the land they work and landlords pay low wages, despite the harsh conditions. You can see why so many people want to leave.
Crops can dry out from no rain or drowned from too much rain as there are no tools to catch the rain or to shelter the crops. Rainfall has always been low in the Ceara province of north-east Brazil. As a result of this no money can come in to support a family. As nothing can be used or grown in this land, there is no work as there are no jobs to do. Crop seeds cannot be planted, as they will not grow due to the aridity and humidity. Starvation also affects these people as a result of this as there are no crops, and they have no money to buy food with.
Most of the people leaving are teenagers to middle aged people. These age groups of people are migrating because they want a job or something that will bring money in to support their families. Children as young as ten year old are getting jobs such as shoe polishers or something that will bring money in, for them to buy food, as their parents cannot afford pocket money.
Some parents send their children to work as there is no law stating an age for children to start work. Some parents send there children to a shopping centre as many jobs are available here such as watching someone’s car or carrying shopping. The people left behind are the very old people who may have lived in these conditions since birth or the very young .There is no works for he elderly so hey just stay put as there is no point in moving. Nobody is left to work (when work is available) in the North-East they have all moved to the South of Brazil, hoping to find jobs and better living environments.
To help keep people in the north east I think the government needs to contribute as there is little or no government funding. If this is not available, maybe funding from the neighbouring wealthier countries could be given. More wells could be built for when there is no rain, the water can be gained from underground or from a large tank of CLEAN water. Solar power could be used to try to modernize this part of Brazil as this would make more permanent jobs and the unemployment rat down. Most seek anew life in the southern-eastern cities of Brazil such as Sao Paulo. In the last 5o years, the main river flowing through the north-east has been used to create hydroelectric power. Using money from the World Bank, three huge reservoirs have been created along the San Francisco River.
Some 120,000 people were displaced by the Sobradinho project and 40,000 by the Itaporica project. Those who owned land were compensated and resettled, but it was the most vunerable who suffered the most. The landless became destitute overnight. They had three choices:-
* Become totally dependent on charitable aid.
* Move to the interior and try to scratch out an existence in the Caatinga.
* Move out to the north-east region completely
It is estimated that 20 000 have chosen the last option and moved to cities like Sao Paulo.